The spectrum


Light is radiation. It is radiation that human eye can see, but it’s only one small band in the entire electromagnetic spectrum that consist of a range of wavelenghts, from short to long, which includes gamma radiation, X-rays, radar, and radio. The human eye is sensitive to a narrow band of wavelenghts of between 400 and 700 nanometers (nm).

The small range of visible wavelenghts contains a variety of effects. the eye sees these small differences as different colors. the shortest visible wavelenghts is violet and the longest one is red. in between are the familiar colors of spectrum, of which the eye can normally distinguish seven definite hues. They only exist only in our  eye and mind, however the light waves themselves are not colored. The best we can do with light is to see the mixture of wavelenghts as one color. We perceive all of them mixed together as white.  The neutrality of white occurs because our eyes evolved under it-the color of the midday sun. Light & lighting (Michael Freeman)

Light Enlightenment

Light is the key element of photography-it both creates the image and defines the style and feel of a picture. In traditional, film-based photography, it took years of experience and a solid grasp of theory to understand how light worked and then get great result. Now, with its ability to preview shots and adapt to all conditions, the digital camera puts you back in control.

Do digital cameras make a difference to this special relationship between photography and light?

Substantially so, and for two reasons. First, the sensor array has the ability to react more adaptively to light than can a film emulsion. Second, and more important, the light information captured is them processed by the camera and later, if you like, on a computer. All of this makes it possible to capture the subtle effects of light and colors as you see them-and also you would like them to appear. Indeed digital photography provides more control over the light recorded than could ever be dreamed of in the days of film, and making full use of the camera’s capabilities opens up a new world of precision and choice.-Light & lighting (Michael Freeman)

light creates the image


Fashion Line in Time (16th century-1940s)

Empire silhouettes.

An Empire silhouette is created by a woman wearing a high-waisted dress, gathered near or just under the bust with a long, loose skirt, which skims the body. The outline is especially flattering to pear shapes wishing to disguise the stomach area or emphasise the bust. The shape of the dress also helps to lengthen the body’s appearance. (

Such styles are commonly called “Directoire” or “Regency”  during most of the 18th century and the rest of the 19th century, when women’s clothes were generally tight against the torso from the natural waist upwards, and heavily full-skirted below (often inflated by means of hoop-skirts, crinolines, panniers, bustles, etc.). The high waistline of 1795–1820 styles took attention away from the natural waist, so that there was then no point to the tight “wasp-waist” corseting often considered fashionable during other periods.

Romantic era.

Gigot or Gigot De Mouton Sleeve 1825-1833. The sleeves of the Romantic Era are the main feature and were built on an inverted triangle bodice. The bodice décolletage was so exposed by the pull of the wide sleeves that it really showed off the chest, throat and the sloping shoulders.(


In 1836 Gigot sleeves collapsed abruptly and so costume began to develop the sentimental ‘early Victorian look’ we associate with Queen Victoria’s early rule. By 1840 the collapsed sleeve was much narrower, but still retained a restrictive seam line on the dropped shoulder. The early Victorian tight fitting pointed bodice was much longer and had a very small tight fitting waist. All the boned bodice seam lines and trims were directional to emphasize the small waists.

As bell shaped skirts of the 1830s became wider and they began to also look dome shaped. By 1842 they needed a great deal of support from extra petticoats. The wider skirts were supported by stiffened fabrics like linen which used horsehair in the weave.



The new day skirt style was flared smoothly over the hips from a handspan waist and then gradually widened at the hemline. The tailor made, Initially only the jacket was tailored and it was worn with a draped bustle skirt. By the 1890s and until 1910 the gored skirt also looked more tailored and matched the jacket style which followed the changing silhouette of the time. In the 1890s the tailored suit was thought both masculine and unladylike, a description usually used for a fairly plain garment.


All the changes that were forced on a rigid society were a direct result of the war. Women stopped wearing jewellery and lavish clothes. Dress rules for both sexes were relaxed in theatres and other venues. When troops were at home on rest leave during the war dancing gained popularity. A famous American dancing couple called the Castles helped spread the new dance crazes and magazines showed the steps of the latest dance, with a graphic for each new movement. The effect of war on fashion styles was that military braiding, belts with buckles and shorter skirts were seen everywhere. Fashion history shows that clothes got shorter during the First World War out of practical necessity.


The 1930 magazine fashion article concentrated on defining the early 1930 sleeve styles and suggested choosing between the short sleeves or three quarter length sleeves shown far right.  Bold contrasting smart colours like navy blue, red and white were typical colour schemes.


Life in a Flatland: Kajian kritis tentang online game


Game online menjadi salah satu media hiburan yang memungkinkan pemainnya untuk istirahat sejenak dari realitas, mengisi waktu luang atau sekedar bersenang-senang. Dengan jaringan di Internet sebuah game dapat dimainkan bersama-sama dimana para pemainnya juga dapat berinteraksi satu dengan yang lain. Tidak hanya untuk fun, sebenarnya game juga memproduksi environment baru, sebuah dunia virtual, yang tidak pernah hadir secara fisik. Relasi sosial yang anda lakukan ketika bermain game menciptakan ruang tamu virtual dirumah anda. Dunia virtual ini membius anda sehingga anda menjadi lupa akan realitas. Berawal dari ruang tamu virtual, makalah ini akan menkaji secara kritis fenomena online game sebagai sebuah media dari sudut padang sejarah kebudayaan dan semiotika.

Game online, virtual, realitas.


Di era postmodern ini segala hal yang fisik telah didigitalisasi menjadi bentuk virtual. Adalah teknologi yang digunakan manusia sebagai alat bantu, telah berkembang pesat meninggalkan sistem mekanik, ke analog,  lalu ke sistem yang lebih kompleks. Demikian juga dengan bentuknya yang semakin compact, ringan, dan desainnya yang mengikuti anatomi manusia ketika menggunakannya. Komputer generasi pertama tahun 1941, Z3, memiliki bentuk yang sangat besar sehingga tidak dapat dipindahkan, kemudian ia berevolusi menjadi bentuk yang lebih kecil dan portable-komputer jinjing atau laptop, lalu diperkecil lagi menjadi hanya sebesar chip dalam smartphone anda. Komputer tidak lagi sebagai alat hitung melainkan intelejensia yang dapat memberikan feedback kepada anda, ia melakukan interaksi dengan anda. Komputer memberikan solusi dari masalah tetapi juga dapat menyediakan anda hiburan salah satunya adalah game. Ketika bermain game sebenarnya anda tidak saja berinteraksi dengan komputer tetapi game itu sendiri adalah environment baru yang membawa anda seolah berada dalam environment tersebut. Interaksi yang selanjutnya terjadi dapat dilakukan dari banyak arah, hal ini disebabkan oleh adanya jaringan internet. Internet menjadikan environment satu dengan environment yang lain saling terhubung dan berinteraksi bebas.

Mengadaptasi dari Wolley akan istilah yang dipakainya dari karya Edwin Abbot-Flatland. Sebuah dunia virtual dibalik layar yang kita tonton-life in a flatland-ketika anda menggunakan karakter game yang anda mainkan anda merasakan seperti berada dalam game tersebut, anda terlibat, adrenalin terpompa, anda berteriak marah ketika karakter tersebut dipukul lawan tapi setelah dia berhasil mengalahkan musuh anda merasa begitu terpuaskan tapi anda tidak sadar sudah 4 jam waktu yang dihabiskan untuk sekedar menatap layar, seakan tubuh anda diruang tamu tetapi pikiran anda sedang bertamasya ke dunia virtual. Anda menggantikan komunikasi didalam rumah, bertetangga atau dilingkungan masyarakat dengan relasi semu didalam game. Karakter anda bertemu dengan karakter lain. Ia adalah avatar dari pemain game lain, ia bisa kerabat, teman atau orang yang sama sekali tidak anda kenal dan jauh dari anda. Sementara realitasnya, relasi tersebut adalah virtual, rekan anda didalam game tidak pernah datang langsung dan berbincang diruang tamu bersama anda. Karena berjam-jam anda menatap layar, anda tidak lagi berbicara dengan orang dirumah anda sendiri. Seperti yang diungkapkan Piliang kesemuan ini menjadi semacam virus yang menjangkiti anda setelah contact dengannya, menginfeksi anda sehingga anda terputus dari realitas fisik (paralyzed). Hal ini juga yang akan dikritisi didalam makalah ini dari kacamata kebudayaan yang juga berkaitan dengan sejarah peradaban manusia, termasuk memaparkan penyebab dari ‘kelumpuhan’ tersebut dan mengapa manusia sepertinya tidak dapat menghindari serangan virus virtual.

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